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使用复合材料让火车更轻、更快、更环保Use com

点击次数:更新时间:2017-09-21 17:01【打印】

    复合材料在机车车辆制造中的使用可以追溯到七十年代,当时人们发现这种新型材料能够比其它材料重量更轻,但强度更高。
 
       “当时的Inter City125s型火车便是最好的复合材料应用实例,所有的车窗框架都是复合材料制成的,当然还包括火车头前端鼻锥①。”Ken Forsdyke说。她是英国复合材料部的前任秘书长和Fortech材料咨询学校校长。
 
       复合材料在火车的其它应用,我们还可以关注一下位于德比的英国铁路工程公司。公司里一个叫Terry Gotch的工程师由于发现了复合材料的卓越特性:更轻、更强,因此大力推动该原材料的发展。
 
       Ken说,因为铁路客运始终面临的问题之一是,火车本身的重量大。这主要是由于复杂的零部件防撞结构导致的。这就意味着,火车制造商们要尽一切可能降低列车重量,这样才能减少列车的电力需求。
 
       今天,研发人员希望在列车中尽量多的使用复合材料,制造商们也希望通过在列车制造中使用创新型原材料降低车身重量。现代应用复合材料最好的案例莫过于欧洲之星列车,车头整体采用了复合材料制成。
 
       当然,复合材料也被伦敦地铁制造商广泛应用。当列车主要在隧道或地下行驶时,那么该车辆的制造材料首先要通过相关消防规定或防火安全标准,例如BS6853标准。这就意味着这类列车的生产材料必须具有高阻燃性能,如酚醛树脂基复合材料。
 
       在列车中制造中使用复合材料,无疑能够提高行驶速度、降低能源消耗。业内专家表示,复合材料将在欧洲、乃至全球的铁路客运行业发挥重要作用:复合材料帮助火车更轻、更快、更环保。 
 
       注释①:在大于40公里/小时的高速气流中,风罩就不大适用了,而必须使用鼻锥来减小这种高速气流对测量的影响。传声器放在高速气流中,在传声器的膜片上就会产生湍流,而这种湍流会产生很强的干扰,例如在风洞、排气孔、行驶的火车或飞机外面测量噪声就属于上述情况。鼻锥是为降低有固定方向的高速气流所产生的强干扰而设计的。鼻锥的前端做成流线型,使用时用它代替一般的防护罩,这样就可以使风阻最小,从而消除湍流。

The use of composite materials in rolling stock can be traced back to 70s, when it was found to be lighter but stronger than other materials.
The then Inter City125s was the best example of composite applications, all of which were made of composite materials and, of course, the nose of the locomotive." Ken Forsdyke says. She is the former Secretary General of the UK composites division and the president of the Fortech Materials Advisory school.
Other applications of the composite in the trains, we can also pay attention to the British Rail Engineering Company in derby. An engineer at the company, Terry Gotch, has been driving the development of the material because of the discovery of the superior properties of composites: lighter and stronger.
Ken said that because one of the problems that rail passengers have always faced is the weight of the train itself. This is mainly due to complex collision avoidance structures. This means that train manufacturers should do everything possible to reduce the weight of trains, so as to reduce the power demand of trains.
Today, researchers want to use composites as much as possible in the train, and manufacturers want to reduce the weight of the car by using innovative materials in the train. The best example of modern composite applications is the Eurostar train, which is made of composite material.
Of course, composites are also widely used by London Metro manufacturers. When the train is mainly traveling in the tunnel or underground, then the vehicle manufacturing materials must first pass the relevant fire regulations or fire safety standards, such as BS6853 standards. This means that materials for the production of such trains must have high flame retardancy, such as phenolic resin based composites.
The use of composite materials in the manufacture of trains will undoubtedly increase travel speed and reduce energy consumption. Industry experts say the composites will play an important role in the rail industry in Europe and the world as a whole: composites will help train to be lighter, faster and greener.
Note: a wind shield is not suitable for a high speed air flow greater than 40 km / h, and a nose cone must be used to reduce the effect of such a high velocity airflow on the measurement. The microphone placed in high speed flow, the microphone diaphragm will produce turbulence, and the turbulence will produce strong interference, for example in the wind tunnel, vent, train or plane outside the measurement noise belongs to this situation. Nose cone is designed to reduce the strong interference caused by high speed airflow with fixed direction. The nose tip is streamlined and is used instead of a general shield to minimize wind resistance and eliminate turbulence.

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